C++ 面向对象篇 Union

Rules

  1. The union is only as big as necessary to hold its [largest data] member.

  2. The other data members are allocated in the [same bytes] as part of that [largest member].

  3. The details of that allocation are [implementation-defined], and it’s [undefined behavior] to read from the member of the union that [wasn’t most recently written].

  4. Many compilers implement, as a [non-standard language extension], the ability to [read inactive] members of a union.

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#include <iostream>
#include <cstdint>
union S
{
std::int32_t n;
// occupies 4 bytes

std::uint16_t s[2];
// uint16_t:unsigned integer type with width of exactly 16
// occupies 4 bytes(2*2=4)

std::uint8_t c;
// uint8_t:unsigned integer type with width of exactly 8
// occupies 1 byte
};
// the whole union occupies 4 bytes[rule.1]

int main()
{
S s = {0x12345678}; // initializes the first member, s.n is now the active member
// at this point, reading from s.s or s.c is undefined behavior[rule.3]
std::cout << std::hex << "s.n = " << s.n << '\n';

s.s[0] = 0x0011; // s.s is now the active member

// at this point, reading from n or c is UB but most compilers define it[rule.4]
std::cout << "s.c is now " << +s.c << '\n' // 11 or 00, depending on platform
<< "s.n is now " << s.n << '\n'; // 12340011 or 00115678
}

output

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s.n = 12345678
s.c is now 0
s.n is now 115678

Member allocating

Each member is allocated as if it is the only member of the class.

Conctors and Dectors of members

If members of a union are classes with [user-defined constructors] and [destructors], to switch the active member, [explicit destructor] and [placement new] are generally needed:

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#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>

union S
{
std::string str;
std::vector<int> vec;
~S() {} // needs to know which member is active, only possible in union-like class
};// the whole union occupies max(sizeof(string), sizeof(vector<int>))[rule.1]

int main()
{
S s = {"Hello, world"};
// at this point, reading from s.vec is undefined behavior[rule.3]
std::cout << "s.str = " << s.str << '\n';
s.str.~basic_string();

new (&s.vec) std::vector<int>;//placement new
// now, s.vec is the active member of the union
s.vec.push_back(10);
std::cout << s.vec.size() << '\n';
s.vec.~vector();//explicit destructor
}

output

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s.str = Hello, world
1

Member lifetime

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union A { int x; int y[4]; };
struct B { A a; };
union C { B b; int k; };
int f() {
C c; // does not start lifetime of any union member
c.b.a.y[3] = 4; // OK: "c.b.a.y[3]", names union members c.b and c.b.a.y;
// This creates objects to hold union members c.b and c.b.a.y
return c.b.a.y[3]; // OK: c.b.a.y refers to newly created object
}

struct X { const int a; int b; };
union Y { X x; int k; };
void g() {
Y y = { { 1, 2 } }; // OK, y.x is active union member (9.2)
int n = y.x.a;
y.k = 4; // OK: ends lifetime of y.x, y.k is active member of union
y.x.b = n; // undefined behavior: y.x.b modified outside its lifetime,
// "y.x.b" names y.x, but X's default constructor is deleted,
// so union member y.x's lifetime does not implicitly start
}

Anonymous unions

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int main()
{
union
{
int a;
const char* p;
};
a = 1;
p = "Jennifer";
}

Union-like classes

A union-like class is either a (non-union) class that has at least one anonymous union as a member or a union. A union-like class has a set of variant members:

  • the non-static data members of its member anonymous unions;

  • in addition, if the union-like class is a union, its non-static data members that are not anonymous unions.

Union-like classes can be used to implement tagged unions.

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#include <iostream>

// S has one non-static data member (tag), three enumerator members (CHAR, INT, DOUBLE),
// and three variant members (c, i, d)
struct S
{
enum{CHAR, INT, DOUBLE} tag;
union
{
char c;
int i;
double d;
};
};

void print_s(const S& s)
{
switch(s.tag)
{
case S::CHAR: std::cout << s.c << '\n'; break;
case S::INT: std::cout << s.i << '\n'; break;
case S::DOUBLE: std::cout << s.d << '\n'; break;
}
}

int main()
{
S s = {S::CHAR, 'a'};
print_s(s);
s.tag = S::INT;
s.i = 123;
print_s(s);
}

output

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a
123
Thanks for Support.